Veganism Defined: What Exactly Is A Vegan Diet?

Veganism, a lifestyle that excludes the consumption of animal products, has gained significant popularity in recent years. It has been touted as a solution to several issues, ranging from environmental degradation to animal cruelty to human health issues. The rise of veganism has been nothing short of remarkable, with a growing number of people adopting this lifestyle. However, amidst the increasing popularity of veganism, there exists a lot of confusion and misconceptions about what exactly constitutes a vegan diet.

At its core, veganism is a philosophy that rejects the use of animal products. A vegan diet, therefore, is one that excludes all animal-derived foods and products, including meat, dairy, eggs, honey, and any other food that comes from animals. While some may view veganism as just another dietary trend, it is important to understand the underlying ethical and environmental principles that drive this lifestyle. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of veganism and the vegan diet, exploring the benefits, challenges, and misconceptions surrounding this way of life.

Key Takeaways

  • A vegan diet excludes all animal products and by-products, including meat, dairy, eggs, and honey.
  • With proper planning, a vegan diet can provide all necessary nutrients for optimal health, including protein, iron, calcium, and vitamin B12.
  • Veganism extends beyond just food choices to clothing, cosmetics, and household products, and seeks to reduce animal exploitation and suffering.
  • By reducing or eliminating animal products from one’s diet, individuals can significantly decrease their carbon footprint and contribute to mitigating climate change.

Definition of Veganism

The definition of veganism is a dietary practice that excludes all animal products and by-products, including meat, dairy, eggs, honey, and gelatin, as well as any products derived from these sources. Veganism is more than just a diet; it is a philosophy that seeks to avoid the exploitation and suffering of animals for any purpose, be it food, clothing, or entertainment. Veganism has its roots in the ethical concerns of animal welfare and environmental sustainability and is gaining popularity worldwide as a lifestyle choice.

Despite the growing awareness of veganism, there are still many misconceptions surrounding it. Some people view veganism as an extreme and restrictive diet that lacks essential nutrients, which is not always the case. A well-planned vegan diet can provide all the necessary nutrients, including protein, iron, calcium, and vitamin B12. Moreover, veganism is not just limited to food choices but also extends to other aspects of life, such as clothing, cosmetics, and household products.

It is essential to differentiate between veganism and vegetarianism, as they are often used interchangeably. The key difference is that vegetarians exclude meat but may still consume dairy and eggs, whereas vegans exclude all animal products. Both diets have their benefits, but veganism is considered a more sustainable and ethical choice. In the next section, we will explore what foods are included in a vegan diet and how to ensure a balanced and healthy vegan lifestyle.

What Foods are Included in a Vegan Diet?

Plant-based foods constitute the core of a diet that excludes all animal-derived products, with recent data showing that over 9 million Americans follow a vegan or vegetarian diet. As such, a vegan diet excludes all meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, and honey. However, the abundance of plant-based protein sources such as beans, lentils, and tofu, provides vegans with an adequate amount of protein, fiber, and other essential nutrients.

In addition to plant-based protein sources, vegan diets can include a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and seeds. These food groups provide essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin C, potassium, and magnesium, which are essential for maintaining a healthy immune system and preventing chronic diseases. Vegan snacks such as hummus with raw vegetables, roasted chickpeas, and fruit and nut bars can provide a convenient and healthy option for those on the go.

While a vegan diet may seem restrictive, it can offer a wide variety of delicious and nutritious foods that can help individuals maintain a healthy lifestyle. However, it is important to ensure that a vegan diet is nutritionally balanced and provides all the necessary nutrients for optimal health. In the subsequent section, we will explore what foods are excluded in a vegan diet.

What Foods are Excluded in a Vegan Diet?

Excluding all animal-derived products, a diet following vegan principles eliminates meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, and honey. However, this is not an exhaustive list, and there are many processed foods that can contain hidden animal products, such as gelatin, whey, and casein. To follow a vegan diet, it is essential to read labels carefully and be aware of common animal-derived ingredients in processed foods.

Eating out can also present challenges for those following a vegan diet. Many restaurants do not have vegan options, and even seemingly vegan dishes may contain hidden animal products, such as butter or chicken broth. It is important to communicate clearly with servers and ask about ingredients in dishes. Some vegans may also choose to research and plan ahead by looking up menus online or calling ahead to restaurants to ensure that there are suitable options available.

Following a vegan diet means excluding all animal-derived products, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, and honey. However, it also requires careful attention to hidden animal products in processed foods and challenges when eating out. Despite these obstacles, many people choose to follow a vegan diet due to its potential health benefits, environmental sustainability, and ethical considerations.

The Benefits of a Vegan Diet

Transitioning to a plant-focused dietary lifestyle can be likened to opening a door to a plethora of health benefits. A vegan diet, which primarily consists of fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains, and nuts, is rich in essential vitamins, minerals, and fiber, which makes it an excellent source of nutrition for the body. Studies have shown that individuals who follow a vegan diet have lower rates of obesity, heart disease, and some types of cancer.

Moreover, a vegan diet has positive environmental impacts. Animal agriculture is responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, and water pollution. By adopting a vegan diet, we can significantly reduce our carbon footprint, conserve water resources, and help reduce the negative impacts of climate change. Additionally, ethical considerations play a significant role in adopting a vegan diet. It is a compassionate choice that avoids the exploitation and suffering of animals.

A vegan diet offers numerous benefits for individuals and the environment. It is a sustainable dietary lifestyle that promotes overall health and well-being, reduces the impact of animal agriculture on the environment, and aligns with ethical considerations. However, transitioning to a vegan diet can be challenging, and it requires careful planning and education. In the next section, we will explore some of the challenges of a vegan diet and how to overcome them.

The Challenges of a Vegan Diet

Adopting a plant-focused dietary lifestyle may present some difficulties that need to be overcome. One of the main challenges of a vegan diet is meal planning. Veganism is not just about eliminating animal products from one’s diet but also about ensuring that the body receives the necessary nutrients. Individuals who are not familiar with veganism may find it difficult to plan meals that are both nutritious and satisfying. It is important to learn about alternative sources of protein, iron, calcium, and vitamin B12, which are essential for a healthy vegan diet.

Another challenge of a vegan diet is navigating social situations. Dining out with non-vegan friends or attending family gatherings can be difficult as there may not be many vegan options available. It can be uncomfortable to ask for vegan options or to bring your own food to social events. Moreover, some people may not understand or respect your dietary choices, which can lead to social tension. It is important to approach these situations with confidence and to communicate your dietary needs clearly. It may also be helpful to seek out vegan-friendly restaurants and to bring vegan dishes to share at social events.

A vegan diet can present challenges such as meal planning and navigating social situations. However, with the right knowledge and mindset, these challenges can be overcome. In the next section, we will discuss some tips for transitioning to a vegan diet, which can help in overcoming these challenges and in achieving a healthy and fulfilling plant-based lifestyle.

Tips for Transitioning to a Vegan Diet

One approach to transitioning to a vegan diet is to gradually increase the amount of plant-based foods in one’s meals. This can be done through meal planning and incorporating new cooking techniques. Meal planning involves creating a weekly menu that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes. It is important to experiment with new recipes and flavors to keep meals interesting and satisfying.

Cooking tips for a vegan diet include using alternative sources of protein such as tofu, tempeh, and seitan. These protein sources can be prepared in a variety of ways, such as baking, grilling, or sautéing. It is also important to incorporate healthy fats such as avocado, nuts, and seeds into meals to ensure adequate nutrient intake. In addition, using herbs and spices can add flavor and depth to dishes without relying on animal products.

Transitioning to a vegan diet may seem daunting at first, but with proper planning and preparation it can be a rewarding and fulfilling experience. By focusing on incorporating more plant-based foods into meals and experimenting with new cooking techniques, individuals can successfully transition to a vegan diet. In the subsequent section, we will explore vegan alternatives to animal products that can be used in recipes to add flavor and texture to meals.

Vegan Alternatives to Animal Products

Individuals transitioning to a vegan diet may find it challenging to replace the taste and texture of animal products. Fortunately, there are now numerous plant-based substitutes available in the market. Plant-based milks, meat substitutes, and vegan cheeses are popular choices among vegans, and they offer a variety of flavors and options to suit different tastes and dietary preferences. These alternatives are not only cruelty-free but also offer several health benefits, making them a sustainable and ethical choice for those looking to switch to a plant-based diet.

Plant-Based Milks

Plant-based milks, which have become increasingly popular in recent years, are a viable alternative to dairy milk for those following a vegan diet. Not only are they free of animal products, but they also offer a variety of health benefits. Here are three examples:

  1. Nutrient-rich: Plant-based milks such as almond, soy, and hemp are often fortified with vitamins and minerals, making them a good source of nutrients like calcium, vitamin D, and protein.
  2. Lower environmental impact: Plant-based milk production is generally more sustainable than dairy milk production, which requires large amounts of water and land, and contributes to greenhouse gas emissions.
  3. Versatility: Plant-based milks can be used in a variety of recipes, from baking to coffee drinks, and can be easily substituted for dairy milk.

As the demand for plant-based alternatives continues to rise, the availability and variety of plant-based milks are also increasing. However, plant-based milks are not the only alternative for those following a vegan diet. The next section will explore meat substitutes and their role in a vegan diet.

Meat Substitutes

Just as a painter can use a variety of brushes to create a masterpiece, individuals following a plant-based lifestyle have access to a range of meat substitutes that can be used to create a variety of flavorful and satisfying dishes. Meat substitutes are a great way to add texture and protein to a plant-based diet, and they come in many forms, from tofu and tempeh to seitan and jackfruit. Many brands offer meatless versions of familiar dishes such as burgers, hot dogs, and chicken nuggets, making the transition to a plant-based diet much easier for those who crave the taste of meat.

Flavorful options are abundant when it comes to meat substitutes, as they are often seasoned with a variety of spices and sauces to enhance their taste. In addition to being tasty, many meat substitutes also have nutritional value, such as providing protein, iron, and other vitamins and minerals. However, it is important to choose meat substitutes that are minimally processed and made with whole food ingredients to optimize their nutritional value. With so many options available, it is easy to incorporate meat substitutes into a plant-based diet and create delicious and satisfying meals that are both healthy and sustainable.

As we move into the next section about vegan cheeses, it is important to note that just as there are many options for meat substitutes, there are also many options for dairy-free cheeses that can be used in a variety of dishes.

Vegan Cheeses

Meat substitutes are a popular choice amongst vegans as they offer a similar taste and texture to meat without the animal cruelty involved. However, some vegans may miss the taste of cheese, which can be a staple in many diets. Fortunately, there are now many vegan cheese options available that are both tasty and cruelty-free.

Vegan cheese comes in many different types and tastes, from nut-based cheeses to soy-based cheeses. Some popular varieties include cheddar, mozzarella, and feta. Additionally, making vegan cheese at home is becoming increasingly popular as people seek to customize their flavors and ingredients. This can be done using a variety of plant-based ingredients such as nuts, seeds, and tofu. Vegan cheese not only offers a cruelty-free alternative to traditional cheese but also provides a healthier option as it is often lower in fat and cholesterol.

Moving forward, veganism is not just about dietary choices but also encompasses animal rights and ethical considerations.

Veganism and Animal Rights

The ethical considerations surrounding animal agriculture have been a topic of debate for many years. As veganism becomes more popular, there is a growing connection between this dietary choice and animal rights activism. Veganism is often viewed as a way to reduce or eliminate harm to animals, and many vegans believe that consuming animal products goes against their moral principles.

The Ethics of Animal Agriculture

Animal agriculture is a controversial topic in the ongoing discussion of ethical veganism. Statistics show that animal agriculture is responsible for 14.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions, making it a significant contributor to climate change. Additionally, the industry has been criticized for its treatment of animals, with concerns about animal welfare and ethical concerns arising from the use of hormones and antibiotics, as well as the confinement and mistreatment of animals in factory farms.

To evoke emotion in the audience, it is important to consider the impact of animal agriculture on the environment and animal welfare. The industry contributes to deforestation, water and air pollution, and biodiversity loss, which not only affects the animals but also human health and livelihoods. Moreover, factory farming practices have been shown to cause immense suffering to animals, with chickens, pigs, and cows being subjected to cramped and unsanitary conditions, routine mutilation, and inhumane slaughter methods. These issues raise important ethical questions about the morality of using animals for food and the impact of our choices on the world around us.

Animal agriculture has become a pressing global issue, with concerns about its impact on the environment and animal welfare gaining increasing attention. The link between veganism and animal rights is a natural progression in this discussion, as people seek to make more ethical and sustainable choices in their daily lives.

The ethical considerations surrounding the use of animals for human consumption have led many individuals to adopt a vegan lifestyle. Veganism is often associated with animal welfare, as it seeks to reduce animal suffering by avoiding all animal products, including meat, dairy, eggs, and honey. Veganism advocates argue that animals have inherent value, and their use for food and other human purposes is a violation of their rights. They believe that animals have the right to live free from harm and exploitation, and it is our moral obligation to respect and protect their interests.

In addition to animal welfare, veganism also opposes animal testing. Many cosmetic and pharmaceutical companies use animals to test their products, which often results in animal suffering and death. Veganism advocates argue that these practices are unnecessary and cruel, and alternative testing methods should be developed. Veganism’s focus on animal welfare and opposition to animal testing has led many individuals to adopt a plant-based diet as a means of reducing animal suffering. The link between veganism and animal rights is a crucial aspect of the vegan movement, and it is an essential consideration for individuals looking to adopt a vegan lifestyle.

Moving forward, it is important to examine the environmental implications of veganism. While the ethical considerations of veganism are significant, the environmental impact of a plant-based diet is also an essential aspect to consider.

Veganism and the Environment

One crucial aspect of adopting a vegan diet is its potential environmental benefits. The environmental impact of animal agriculture is significant and includes deforestation, water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and soil degradation. By choosing a vegan diet, individuals can reduce their carbon footprint and contribute to sustainable living practices.

To add depth to this topic, consider the following three points:

  1. Animal agriculture is responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than the transportation industry. By reducing or eliminating animal products from their diets, individuals can significantly decrease their carbon footprint and contribute to mitigating climate change.
  2. The production of animal products requires significantly more resources, including water and land, than plant-based products. By consuming a vegan diet, individuals can reduce their demand for these resources and contribute to sustainable living practices.
  3. The waste produced by animal agriculture, including manure and other byproducts, can cause water pollution and soil degradation. By choosing a vegan diet, individuals can reduce their contribution to this environmental harm.

In addition to its environmental benefits, adopting a vegan diet has been linked to numerous health benefits.

Veganism and Health

Research has shown that a plant-based diet can improve overall health outcomes and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Veganism, which is a subset of plant-based eating, has been found to offer numerous health benefits. For instance, vegans tend to have lower rates of heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. Additionally, a vegan diet can help individuals maintain a healthy body weight and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases.

One common concern about veganism is the potential for nutrient deficiencies. However, studies have shown that with proper planning, a vegan diet can provide all the necessary nutrients for optimal health. For instance, plant-based foods such as legumes, tofu, nuts, and seeds are rich sources of protein, while dark leafy greens, fortified plant milks, and supplements can provide adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D. Moreover, a vegan diet can offer more than enough iron, zinc, and vitamin B12, especially if supplemented or fortified foods are included in the diet.

Aside from health benefits, veganism has also been shown to have a positive impact on athletic performance. A plant-based diet can offer sufficient amounts of carbohydrates, protein, and healthy fats, which are essential for athletic performance and recovery. Additionally, veganism can reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, which are common side effects of intense exercise. Therefore, athletes who follow a vegan diet can improve their endurance, strength, and overall athletic performance.

A plant-based diet, including veganism, can offer numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, maintaining a healthy body weight, and improving athletic performance. While concerns about nutrient deficiencies are valid, proper planning can ensure that all necessary nutrients are included in the diet. The next section will discuss how veganism relates to social justice.

Veganism and Social Justice

A critical examination of the ethical implications of abstaining from animal products reveals the complex intersection of veganism and social justice. Veganism is not solely a dietary choice, but rather a lifestyle that seeks to reduce harm and exploitation of animals, the environment, and marginalized communities. Social inequality and systemic oppression are inextricably linked to the consumption of animal products, as animal agriculture perpetuates the exploitation of both animals and workers.

  1. Animal agriculture perpetuates social inequality by exploiting marginalized communities. The production of animal products is often concentrated in low-income communities and communities of color, where workers are subjected to unsafe and oppressive working conditions. These workers are often undocumented immigrants who are vulnerable to exploitation by their employers. The consumption of animal products also perpetuates food insecurity, as the resources used to produce animal products could be used to feed more people if they were redirected towards plant-based agriculture.

  2. Veganism is an intersectional movement that recognizes the interconnectedness of all forms of oppression. Veganism seeks to reduce harm and exploitation of not only animals but also marginalized communities. By adopting a vegan lifestyle, individuals can help reduce the demand for animal products and promote sustainable, plant-based agriculture. This, in turn, can help reduce the exploitation of workers and marginalized communities.

  3. Veganism is not a perfect solution to social inequality and systemic oppression, as other forms of exploitation and oppression exist outside of animal agriculture. However, it is a step towards a more just and equitable society. By recognizing the interconnectedness of all forms of oppression and actively working to reduce harm and exploitation, individuals can contribute to a more just and equitable world.

Veganism is more than just a dietary choice. It is a lifestyle that seeks to reduce harm and exploitation of animals, the environment, and marginalized communities. By adopting a vegan lifestyle, individuals can contribute to reducing social inequality and systemic oppression. While veganism is not a perfect solution, it is a step towards a more just and equitable society. In the next section, we will explore some myths about veganism and provide evidence-based information to debunk them.

Debunking Myths About Veganism

Veganism is often associated with social justice movements, and for good reason. The decision to adopt a vegan lifestyle is often motivated by ethical considerations related to animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and social justice. However, misconceptions about veganism abound, and these misconceptions can create barriers to adopting a vegan lifestyle. In this section, we will debunk some of the most common myths about veganism.

One common misconception about veganism is that it is an expensive lifestyle. While it is true that some vegan products can be more expensive than their non-vegan counterparts, a vegan diet can actually be quite affordable. Staples such as beans, rice, and vegetables are often cheaper than meat and dairy products, and there are many affordable vegan recipes available online. Additionally, many grocery stores now offer a wide selection of vegan products at reasonable prices.

Another myth about veganism is that it is difficult to get enough protein on a vegan diet. In reality, there are many plant-based sources of protein, including beans, lentils, tofu, and nuts. It is also possible to get all of the essential amino acids on a vegan diet by combining different plant-based protein sources. In fact, the American Dietetic Association has stated that a well-planned vegan diet is appropriate for all stages of life, including pregnancy and childhood.

Despite these misconceptions, veganism continues to gain popularity and mainstream acceptance. In the next section, we will explore the ways in which veganism has been portrayed in popular culture.

Veganism in Pop Culture

From celebrities like Beyoncé promoting plant-based meals on social media to vegan documentaries like Cowspiracy gaining popularity, the presence of veganism in pop culture has been steadily increasing over the past decade. Veganism in media has become a hot topic, with more and more celebrities adopting a vegan lifestyle and promoting it to their fans. This has led to an increase in the number of people who are curious about veganism and are willing to try it out.

One of the reasons for the rise of veganism in pop culture is the growing awareness of the impact of animal agriculture on the environment. Vegan documentaries like Cowspiracy have shed light on the devastating effects of animal agriculture on the planet, and have encouraged people to adopt a plant-based diet. Celebrities like Leonardo DiCaprio and Miley Cyrus have also spoken out about the environmental benefits of veganism, further increasing its popularity.

Another reason for the rise of veganism in pop culture is the health benefits associated with a plant-based diet. Celebrities like Ellen DeGeneres and Ariana Grande have spoken about how a vegan diet has helped them improve their health and feel better overall. This has led to an increase in the number of people who are willing to try a vegan diet for health reasons. Overall, the rise of veganism in pop culture has helped to increase awareness about the benefits of a plant-based diet and has encouraged more people to adopt a vegan lifestyle.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can a vegan diet provide all the necessary nutrients for a healthy body?

A vegan diet can provide all necessary nutrients for a healthy body, but it requires careful planning and attention to detail. One of the most important considerations is obtaining enough protein, which can be achieved through a variety of plant-based protein sources such as legumes, nuts, and seeds. Additionally, vegans may need to supplement with certain vitamins and minerals that are more difficult to obtain from plant-based sources, such as vitamin B12 and iron. It is important for vegans to work with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian to ensure their diet is nutritionally balanced and meets their individual needs. While a vegan diet can offer many health benefits, it requires a level of dedication and education to ensure optimal health outcomes.

Is veganism more expensive than a non-vegan diet?

As the old adage goes, “you get what you pay for.”And the same principle applies to grocery budget and nutritional value. When it comes to the current question of whether veganism is more expensive than a non-vegan diet, the answer is not so straightforward. While some vegan specialty items may be more expensive, a plant-based diet can also be very affordable. In fact, staples such as beans, rice, fruits, and vegetables are often less expensive than meat and dairy products. Moreover, a vegan diet can provide all the necessary nutrients for a healthy body if planned carefully. Research shows that vegans have lower rates of heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers, indicating that a plant-based diet can have significant health benefits. Therefore, while some vegan products may be pricier, a well-planned vegan diet can be both affordable and nutritious.

Can a vegan diet be harmful to the environment?

A vegan diet can have a significant positive impact on the environment, as it eliminates the need for the production of animal products that require large amounts of resources and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. However, the environmental impact of a vegan diet also depends on factors such as the source of the food and the farming practices used. Ethical considerations also play a role in the environmental impact of a vegan diet, as some vegan products may be produced using exploitative labor practices or contribute to deforestation. Overall, a vegan diet can be a sustainable and ethical choice for those who are mindful of the environmental impact of their food choices and make informed decisions about the sources of their food.

Can a vegan diet help with weight loss?

The plant-based benefits of a vegan diet can indeed aid in weight loss. A vegan meal plan often consists of whole foods that are high in fiber and low in calories, making it easier to maintain a calorie deficit. Additionally, research has shown that individuals following a vegan diet tend to have a lower body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of obesity. However, it is important to note that simply adopting a vegan diet does not guarantee weight loss. It is crucial to also consider portion sizes and overall calorie intake. Proper vegan meal planning can ensure that individuals meet their nutrient needs while also promoting weight loss.

What are some common misconceptions about veganism?

Veganism has been misunderstood and misrepresented in the media and society, leading to a number of misconceptions about the lifestyle. Debunking these myths is important to understand the true nature of veganism. One common misunderstanding is that veganism is solely about diet and nutrition; however, it extends to ethical and moral considerations as well. Another myth is that vegan diets lack sufficient protein and other nutrients, but studies have shown that a well-planned vegan diet can provide all the necessary nutrients. Additionally, veganism is often stigmatized and associated with being overly restrictive or difficult to maintain. Despite these prejudices, veganism has been shown to have a positive impact on the environment, animal welfare, and personal health. It is important to explore and understand these common misunderstandings in order to make informed decisions about the lifestyle.

Conclusion

Veganism is a lifestyle choice that has gained significant attention in recent years. It is a way of life that seeks to avoid animal exploitation and cruelty in all its forms. A vegan diet is a plant-based diet that excludes all animal products, including meat, dairy, eggs, and honey.

The benefits of a vegan diet are many, including a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. However, there are also challenges associated with a vegan diet, including the need to carefully plan meals to ensure adequate intake of all necessary nutrients.

In the same way that a gardener must tend to their plants to ensure that they grow strong and healthy, so must a vegan carefully tend to their diet to ensure that it is nutritionally complete. A vegan diet can be a wonderful way to nourish the body and protect the earth, but it requires careful attention and dedication.

In conclusion, veganism is more than just a diet – it is a way of life that seeks to promote health, environmental sustainability, and social justice. Although there are challenges associated with a vegan diet, the benefits are many, and with careful planning and attention, it is possible to thrive on a plant-based diet. Just as a gardener must tend to their plants with care, so must a vegan tend to their diet with dedication and attention, nurturing their body and the planet in the process.

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